In half of the cases, the cause of couple infertility is the male factor – there is a whole spectrum of anomalies in semen parameters to which various therapies are applied. The basic test for the diagnosis of these causes is a general semen analysis performed in accordance with reference values published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010. The basic semen analysis answers only the question whether the patient has sperm and in what quantity; it does not provide information on the genetic material contained in sperm. A sperm has practically no functions other than transferring the genetic material to a woman’s egg cell. The quality of the material is crucial for the prognosis related to the pregnancy and the baby’s health.