Typically, embryo implantation occurs within three to four days after the embryo has been introduced to the uterine cavity, and, as a standard, this process is supported by appropriate medications. The embryo implantation in the uterine cavity depends, among others, on the degree of preparation of the uterine mucosa, which should be ensured by hormones including estradiol and progesterone. In normal circumstances, the required levels of these hormones are ensured by the ovary, but in the case of IVF procedures, the hormone levels are not always optimal and often need to be regulated.
For at least 16 subsequent days (from 2 to even 10 weeks) following the day of ovum pick-up, or in case of failure, for the period until the occurrence of menstruation, the doctor may order the patient to take certain medications (progesterone and sometimes estradiol preparations). The patient should not stop taking them without speaking to her doctor.
If the embryo implantation occurs properly, at the latest on day 14-17 after the embryo transfer the hormonal urine pregnancy test results will be positive. The urine pregnancy test results should be confirmed by serum pregnancy tests. If the pregnancy test results are negative and the menstrual bleeding does not occur, the pregnancy test should be repeated. In case of any problems, the patient should seek medical attention.