Progesterone and in some cases administered estradiol (e.g. Estrofem, Estraderm).
Progesterone and estradiol are hormones which are normally produced by ovaries after ovulation. In some women, the level of these hormones produced by ovaries after ovum pick-up is not sufficient for the maintenance of pregnancy.
Therefore, additional supplementation with progesterone and in some cases with estradiol is used in order to ensure that the uterine mucosa will be properly prepared for embryo implantation. Progesterone is usually administered after the egg collection in the form of injection or via the intravaginal route. Progesterone supplementation may be continued even for several weeks before the pregnancy is finally confirmed.
Potential side effects of progesterone
Progesterone does not cause fetal defects; in single cases, drowsiness, disturbed attention and concentration, anxiety, episodes of depression, headache and dizziness have been reported. Depression may occur or exacerbate. Uncommon adverse reactions include abnormal bleeding from reproductive tract, amenorrhea, skin redness, acne, hypersensitivity reactions. Progesterone can cause increase or decrease in body mass.
Estradiol is administered orally, intravaginally or in the form of injections. Side effects of this medication include vomiting, nausea, irritation at the application site, risk of thrombosis and stroke.